Cooking Tips and Advice - Print - Food Substitutions

Food Substitutions - Cooking Tips

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Use this food substitution and conversion chart to select ingredient substitutes when you are cooking and your recipe suggests ingredients you do not have available.

Herbs, Spices and Seasonings Substitutions
Food Amount Substitute
Allspice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/2 tsp ground cloves OR
1/2 tsp ground cinnamon, 1/4 tsp. ground cloves, 1/4 tsp ground nutmeg
Ammonium carbonate 3/4 tsp 1 tsp baking soda
Anchovy, mashed 1 1 tsp anchovy paste
Anise Extract 1 tsp 1 1/2 tsp anise seed
Aniseed 1 tsp 1 tsp Fennel seed or a few drops anise extract
Apple Pie Spice 1 tsp

Mix 1/2 tsp ground cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ground ginger, 1/8 tsp ground allspice and 1/8 tsp ground nutmeg OR
1 tsp cinnamon plus 1/8 tsp ground nutmeg OR
1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp nutmeg, and 1/8 tsp cardamom OR
1/2 tsp ground cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ground nutmeg, 1/8 tsp ground allspice, 1/8 tsp ground cardamom

Arrowroot 1 tbsp

2 tbsp all-purpose flour OR
1 tbsp cornstarch

Basil 1 tsp 1 tsp Oregano or thyme
Bay Leaf 1 whole 1/4 tsp crushed
Beau monde 1 tbsp 2 tsp onion powder, 1 tsp celery salt
Cardamom 1 tsp 1 tsp Ginger OR
1 tsp ground cinnamon
Cayenne 1/8 tsp 4 drops tabasco sauce
Celery Salt 1 tsp 3/4 tsp salt, 1/4 tsp crushed celery seed
Celery seed (for pickling) 1 tbsp 1 tbsp dill seed
Chervil 1 tsp 1 tsp dried parsley flakes plus 1/8 tsp rubbed, dried sage OR
1 tsp parsley
Chili Hot Red, dried, whole 1 tsp 1 tsp Crushed red pepper
Chili Powder, hot 1 tsp
1 tsp
1 tbsp
1 tsp regular chili powder plus 1/8 tsp ground red pepper OR
Dash bottled hot pepper sauce plus a combination of oregano and cumin OR
2 tsp cumin, 1 tsp cayenne, 1 tsp oregano, 1/2 tsp garlic powder
Chinese Five Spice 1 tsp 1/4 tsp each of: Crushed anise seeds, ground cinnamon, ground cloves and ground ginger
Chives Green onion, onion, or leek
Cilantro Parsley
Cinnamon 1 tsp 1/4 tsp Nutmeg or allspice
Cinnamon Sugar 1 cup 7/8 cup granulated sugar, 2 tbsp ground cinnamon
Cloves Allspice, cinnamon, or nutmeg
Cumin Chili powder
Curry Powder 1 tbsp 1/2 tsp ground cardamom, 1/2 tsp cayenne, 1/2 tsp ground coriander seed, 1/2 tsp cumin, 1/2 tsp ground ginger, 1/2 tsp turmeric
Dill 3 tsp fresh chopped 1 tsp dried dill
Dried Herbs 1/2 tsp dried 1 tsp fresh
Fennel seeds 1 tsp 1 tsp caraway seeds
Fines Herbs 1 tsp
1/3 cup
1/4 tsp each of dried thyme leaves, oregano leaves, sage leaves and rosemary OR
3 tbsp parsley flakes, 2 tsp dried chervil, 2 tsp dried chives, 1 tsp dried tarragon
Five Spice Power 5 tsp 1 tsp ground anise, 1 tsp ground fennel, 1 tsp ground cloves, 1 tsp ground cinnamon, 1 tsp ground pepper
Garlic 1 clove fresh 1/8 tsp garlic powder OR
3/4 tsp minced garlic OR
1/2 tsp garlic salt OR
1/2 tsp garlic juice OR
1 tsp garlic paste
Garlic Powder 1/8 tsp 1/2 tsp garlic juice OR
1 tsp garlic paste OR
1/2 tsp garlic salt
Garlic Salt 1/2 tsp 1/2 tsp garlic juice OR
1 clove garlic, minced OR
1/8 tsp garlic powder
1 tbsp
Allspice, cinnamon, mace, or nutmeg OR
1/8 tsp powdered ginger
Gingerroot (grated fresh) 1/2 tsp 1/4 tsp ground ginger
Herbs, dried leaf 1 tsp 1/4 tsp herbs, powdered
Herbs, fresh 1 tsp
1 tbsp
1/2 tsp herbs, dried
1 tsp herbs, dried
Italian Seasoning 2 tbsp 1 tsp each of: basil, oregano, marjoram, rosemary, sage and thyme
Leeks (sliced) 1/2 cup 1/2 cup sliced green onions or shallots
Mace Allspice, cinnamon, ginger, or nutmeg
Marjoram Basil, thyme, or savory
Mint Basil, marjoram, or rosemary
Nutmeg Cinnamon, ginger, or mace
Onion Powder 1 tsp 1 tbsp instant minced onion
Oregano Thyme, basil, or marjoram
Parsley, dried 1 tsp 1 tsp Chervil or cilantro
Parsley, fresh, chopped 1 tbsp 1 tsp parsley flakes
Pepper flakes, hot 1 tsp 1/2 tsp cayenne
Poultry Seasoning 1 tsp
1 1/3 tsp
3/4 tsp sage, 1/4 ground thyme OR
3/4 tsp sage, 1/4 tsp thyme, 1/8 tsp ground cloves, 1/4 tsp pepper
Pumpkin Pie Spice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp ground cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ground ginger, 1/8 tsp ground allspice, 1/8 tsp ground nutmeg OR
1/2 tsp ground cinnamon, 1/8 tsp ground nutmeg, 1/8 tsp ground mace, 1/8 tsp ground ginger, 1/8 tsp ground cloves
Red Pepper Dash bottled hot pepper sauce or black pepper
Rosemary Thyme, tarragon, or savory
Sage Poultry seasoning, savory, marjoram, or rosemary
Salt, seasoned 4 tsp 2 tsp salt, 1/2 tsp sage, 1/2 tsp parsley flakes, 1/2 tsp onion powder, 1/4 tsp marjoram, 1/4 tsp paprika
Salt, table 1 tbsp 1 1/2 tbsp kosher salt
Savory Thyme, marjoram, or sage
Sesame Seed 1 tbsp 1 tbsp finely chopped blanched almonds
Tarragon Chervil, dash fennel seed, or dash aniseed
Thyme Basil, marjoram, oregano, or savory
Tumeric 1 tsp 1 tsp dry mustard

Assorted Baking Ingredients
Food Amount Substitute
Baker's Ammonia (Hartshorn) 1 tsp 1 tsp baking powder (when using in cookie recipes)
Baking Mix 2 cups Mix 1 3/4 cups all-purpose flour, 2 1/2 tsp baking powder, 3/4 tsp salt and 1/3 cup shortening
Baking Powder 1 tsp

1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 tsp cream of tartar OR
1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 cup sour milk, buttermilk, or plain yogurt OR
1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 tsp vinegar or lemon juice used with sweet milk to make 1/2 cup OR
1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/4 to 1/2 cup molasses (decrease liquid in recipe by 1-2 tbsp)
1 tsp Baker's Ammonia (or Hartshorn)

Biscuit Mix 2 1/4 cups 2 cups flour sifted, 1 tbsp baking powder, 1 tsp salt, 1/4 cup shortening
Cake Flour 1 cup 1 cup minus 2 tbsp all-purpose flour, sifted OR
1 cup all-purpose flour sifted 3 times, then measured to make 1 cup OR
7/8 cup all-purpose flour plus 2 tbsp cornstarch
Carob Powder 1 tbsp 1 tbsp cocoa powder
Chocolate 1 square unsweetened 3 tbsp unsweetened baking cocoa plus 1 tbsp butter, vegetable shortening or margarine OR
3 tbsp carob powder plus 2 tbsp water
1 oz semisweet baking or bittersweet 1 oz unsweetened baking chocolate plus 1 tbsp sugar
1 cup semisweet chips 6 oz semisweet baking chocolate, chopped
Cocoa 1/4 cup or 4 tbsp 1 oz (square) chocolate (decrease fat called for in recipe by 1/2 tbsp)
Coconut 1 tbsp grated, dry 1 1/2 tbsp fresh, grated
Coconut Cream 1 cup 1 cup cream
Coconut Milk 1 cup 1 cup milk
Cornmeal, self-rising 1 cup 1 cup plain cornmeal, 1 tsp baking powder, 1/2 tsp salt
Cornstarch 1 tbsp 2 tbsp all-purpose flour OR
2 tbsp tapioca OR
2 1/2 ttsp arrowroot
Corn Syrup 1 cup light Mix 1 cup granulated sugar with 1/4 cup liquid used in recipe OR
1 1/4 cups light brown sugar, 1/3 cup liquid OR
1 cup honey
1 cup dark 1 cup light corn syrup OR
3/4 cup light corn syrup plus 1/4 cup molasses OR
1 cup maple-flavored syrup
Cream of Tartar 1/2 tsp 1 1/2 tsp lemon juice or vinegar
Flour, all-purpose 1 tbsp (for thickening) 1/2 tbsp cornstarch, potato starch, rice starch, or arrowroot starch OR
1 tbsp granular tapioca OR
2 tsp quick-cooking tapioca OR
1/2 tbsp arrowroot OR
1 egg, 2 egg whites, or 2 egg yolks OR
1 tbsp corn flour OR
7/8 tbsp rice flour OR
2 tbsp browned flour OR
1 1/2 tbsp whole wheat flour OR
1/2 tbsp whole wheat flour plus 1/2 tbsp all-purpose flour
Flour, cake 1 cup sifted 1 cup minus 2 tbsp all-purpose flour, sifted OR
1 cup all-purpose flour sifted 3 times, then measured to make 1 cup OR
7/8 cup all-purpose flour plus 2 tbsp cornstarch
Flour, corn All-purpose flour
Flour, gluten 13 tbsp 1 cup all-purpose flour
Flour, masa harina Cornmeal
Flour, pastry 1 cup 7/8 cup all-purpose flour
Flour, potato 1 tbsp 2 tbsp all-purpose flour OR
1 tbsp cornstarch
Flour, rice 7/8 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour
Flour, rye 1 1/4 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour
Flour, self-rising 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 tsp baking powder and 1/2 tsp salt
Flour, whole wheat, coarse 1 cup 7/8 cup all-purpose flour
Flour, whole wheat, fine All-purpose flour
Marshmallow 1 regular 10 mini marshmallows
Marshmallow Creme 1 jar Melt 16 ounces of marshmallows and 3 1/2 tbsp corn syrup in a double boiler
Marshmallows, miniature 1 cup 10 large marshmallows
Marzipan 2 1/2 cups 2 cups almond paste, 1 cup powdered sugar, 2 tbsp corn syrup
Molasses 1 cup 1/2 cup honey (flavor will be milder) OR
3/4 cup sugar, 1/4 cup water
Onion Soup Mix, dry 2 tbsp 1 tbsp instant minced onion, 1 beef bouillon cube
Sugar, brown 1 cup 1 cup granulated sugar plus 1 tbsp molasses or dark corn syrup
Sugar, brown, dark 1 cup 1 cup granulated sugar plus 2 tbsp molasses or dark corn syrup
Sugar, confectioners' or powdered 1 cup 3/4 cup granulated sugar OR
1 cup granulated sugar and 1 tsp of cornstarch finely ground in blender.
Sugar, cube 1 1/2 tsp granulated sugar
Sugar, granulated 1 cup 1 cup light brown sugar (packed) OR
2 cups powdered sugar OR
3/4 cup honey (reduce liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup) OR
1 3/4 cups confectioners' sugar (not for baking)
Sugar, superfine Grind granulated white sugar in a blender or food processor
Sugar, white 1 cup 1 cup Sugar Twin or Sprinkle Sweet
2 tsp 1 packet Equal
1 tsp 10 drops of Sweet 10
1/2 cup 1 tbsp of Sweet 10
Vanilla Bean 2-inch piece 1 tsp pure vanilla extract
Yeast, compressed 1 cake 1 package or 2 tsp active dry yeast
Yeast, regular or quick active dry 1 pkg (1/4 oz) 2 1/4 tsp regular or quick active dry OR
1 pkg (.6 oz) compressed cake yeast

Cheese and Dairy Products
Food Amount Substitute
Butter 1 cup 1 cup margarine OR
1 1/3 cup whipped butter (for sauteing) OR
1 cup hydrogenated fat plus 1/2 tsp salt OR
7/8 cup oil plus 1/2 tsp salt OR
7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp salt OR
7/8 cup vegetable shortening OR
7/8 cup oil OR
3/4 cup olive oil OR
8 tsp (1 envelope) butter buds, 1/2 cup liquid, 1/2 cup butter
Buttermilk or Sour Milk 1 cup

Mix 1 tbsp white vinegar or lemon juice with 1 cup milk, let stand 5 minutes OR
1 cup whole milk, 1 3/4 tsp cream of tartar OR
1 cup water, 1/4 cup buttermilk powder OR
3/4 cup of plain yogurt and 1/4 cup of milk
1 cup plain yogurt (for baking) OR
1 cup sour cream (for baking)

Cheese, farmer Cottage cheese, dry or drained
Cheese, goat Feta cheese
Cheese, mascarpone Cream cheese
Cheese, parmigiano reggiano Domestic Parmesan, Grana Padano, aged Asiago, Pecorino Romano
Cheese, ricotta Cottage cheese
Cheese, romano Parmesan cheese
Cheese, sharp cheddar 1 cup 1 cup cheddar (mild), 1/8 tsp dry mustard, 1/4 tsp worcestershire sauce
Cottage cheese Ricotta or farmer cheese
Cream Cheese Part skim milk ricotta cheese or lowfat cottage cheese beaten until smooth
Cream, half and half 1 cup

7/8 cup whole milk plus 1/2 tbsp butter OR
3 tbsp oil plus milk to equal 1 cup OR
1 cup evaporated milk OR
3/4 cup whole milk plus 1/4 cup heavy cream OR
2/3 cup skim or low-fat milk plus 1/3 cup heavy cream

Cream, heavy

1 cup (not for whipping)

1 cup whipped

3/4 cup sweet milk plus 1/3 cup butter OR
2 cups whipped dessert topping OR
1 cup evaporated milk

2/3 cup buttermilk plus 1/3 cup oil

Cream, light

1 cup

1 cup (for cooking)

1/2 cup heavy cream, 1/2 cup whole milk OR
7/8 cup sweet milk plus 3 tbsp butter OR
1 tbsp melted butter plus enough milk to make 1 cup

7/8 cup whole milk, 3 tbsp butter OR
1 cup undiluted evaporated milk

Cream, soured 1 cup 7/8 cup sour milk plus 3 tbsp butter OR
7/8 cup buttermilk plus 3 tbsp butter
Cream, whipped, sweetened 1 cup 4 oz whipped topping OR
1 1/4 oz dessert topping mix, prepared OR
13 oz. can evaporated milk chilled for 12 hours plus 1 tsp lemon juice. Whip until stiff. OR
1/2 cup ice-cold water and 1/2 cup nonfat dry milk. Beat until stiff. Add 1/2 cup sugar while beating. Add 2 tbsp lemon juice and beat until mixed.
Cream, whipping 1 cup 2/3 cup evaporated milk, 4 tsp lemon juice or vinegar OR
1/2 cup nonfat dry milk, 1/3 cup water, 1 tbsp lemon juice
Crème fraîche 1 cup 1/2 cup sour cream plus 1/2 cup heavy cream
Half and Half 1 cup 7/8 cup whole milk, 1 1/2 tsp butter OR
1/2 cup whole milk, 1/2 cup light cream OR
3/4 cup whole milk, 1/4 cup heavy cream OR
2/3 cup low-fat or skim milk, 1/3 cup heavy cream
Milk, condensed, sweetened 1 cup 1 cup nonfat dry milk, 1/2 cup boiling water, 2/3 cup sugar, 3 tbsp melted butter (process in blender until smooth) OR
1 cup evaporated milk plus 1 1/4 cup of sugar cooked over low heat until sugar is dissolved.
Milk, evaporated 1 can (12 oz) 12 oz cream OR
Whip until smooth: 1 cup nonfat dry milk, 1 3/4 cups warm water. Keep refrigerated.
Milk, regular or low-fat 1 cup 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water OR
nonfat dry milk prepared as directed on package
Milk, skim 1 cup 3/4 cup water, 1/3 cup nonfat dry milk
Milk, sour 1 cup 1 cup sweet milk plus 1 tbsp vinegar or lemon juice
Milk, sweet 1 cup 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water OR
1 cup reconstituted nonfat dry milk plus 2 tsp butter
Milk, whole 1 cup 1/2 cup evaporated milk, 1/2 cup water OR
1 cup nonfat milk, 2 1/2 tsp butter OR
1 cup skim milk, 1 tbsp melted butter OR
7/8 cup skim milk, 1/8 cup heavy cream OR
5/8 cup skim milk, 3/8 cup half and half OR
2/3 cup 1% milk, 1/3 cup half and half OR
3/4 cup 2% milk, 1/4 cup half and half OR
1 cup water, 4 tbsp dry whole milk OR
1 cup water plus 1 1/2 tsp butter (in baking) OR
1 cup reconstituted nonfat dry milk plus 2 1/2 tsp butter
Sour Cream 1 cup 1 cup plain whole yogurt, 3 tbsp melted butter OR
3/4 cup buttermilk plus 1/4 cup oil OR
3/4 cup milk, 3/4 tsp lemon juice and 1/3 cup butter or margarine OR
1/2 cup cottage cheese and 1/2 cup. of plain yogurt.
Sour Cream (for baking) 1 cup 3/4 cup sour milk or buttermilk, 1/3 cup butter OR
1 cup plain yogurt, 1 tsp baking soda OR
1 tbsp lemon juice, 7/8 cup plus 1 tbsp evaporated milk
Sour Cream (for dips) 1 1/4 cups 1 cup cottage cheese, 1/4 cup plain yogurt or buttermilk (blend in processor) OR
1 cup cottage cheese, 1 tbsp lemon juice, 1/4 cup milk or water, 1/8 tsp salt (blend in processor) OR
8 oz cream cheese, 1/4 cup milk (blend in processor)
Whipping Cream (whipped) Frozen (thawed) whipped topping OR
Prepared whipped topping mix
Yogurt, plain Sour cream OR
Buttermilk OR
Cottage cheese blended until smooth

Food Amount Substitute
Egg (for baking) 1 1 egg yolk, 1 tbsp water
Egg 1 Mix 2 tbsp of milk with 1/2 tsp baking powder OR
2 egg yolks OR
1 egg white plus 2 tsp oil OR
2 egg whites OR
1/4 cup cholesterol-free egg substitute OR
2 egg yolks (for puddings or custard) OR
2 egg yolks plus 1 tbsp water (for bars or cookies)
Egg Substitute 1 egg 2 egg whites plus 1-3 tsp vegetable oil for each yolk omitted OR
1 egg white, 2 1/4 tsp nonfat dry milk powder, 2 tsp vegetable oil
Egg White 1 1 tbsp meringue powder plus 2 tbsp water
Egg Yolks 2
1 large egg yolk
1 whole egg
2 tbsp egg substitute

Fats, Oils and Vinegars
Food Amount Substitute
Balsamic Vinegar Sherry or cider vinegar
Chili Oil 1/4 tsp 1/4 tsp salad oil plus pinch of cayenne
Lard Shortening
Sesame Oil 1 tbsp 1 1/2 tsp sesame seeds sautéed in 1/2 tsp vegetable oil
Shortening, melted 1 cup 1 cup cooking oil (cooking oil should not be substituted if recipe does not call for melted shortening)
Shortening 1 cup 1 cup minus 2 tbsp lard OR
1 1/8 cups butter or margarine (decrease salt by 1/2 tsp)
Vegetable Oil Olive oil
Vinegar Lemon juice
Vinegar, Chinese Balsamic vinegar
Vinegar, Red Wine (for salad dressing) 4 tbsp 3 tbsp cider vinegar, 1 tbsp red wine
Vinegar, Sherry Balsamic vinegar

Fruits and Vegetables
Food Amount Substitute
Capers Chopped green olives
Celery 1/2 cup (1 rib) 1/4 cup celery flakes OR
1/2 cup green pepper or fennel bulb
Chile, Scotch Bonnet Habanero chili
Chile, Serrano Jalapeño chile
Chives Scallion greens
Currants, dried Raisins or chopped dates
Dates, chopped Dried currants OR
Chopped figs OR
Chopped prunes OR
Chopped raisins
Horseradish 1 tbsp fresh 2 tbsp bottled
Jicama, chopped Chopped water chestnuts or tart apple
Leeks Shallots
Lemon or Lime Juice (fresh) Bottled lemon or lime juice or white vinegar
Lemon or Lime Peel (grated) Dried lemon or lime peel
Mushrooms, fresh 1 cup cooked sliced
1 lb
1 lb
1 can (4 oz) mushroom stems and pieces, drained OR
12 oz canned mushrooms OR
3 oz dried mushrooms, reconstituted
Mushrooms, powdered 1 tbsp 3 tbsp whole dried mushrooms OR
4 oz fresh OR
2 oz canned
Onion, fresh 1/4 cup minced

1 tbsp instant minced onion OR
1 tbsp onion flakes OR
1 tsp onion powder

1 med-size onion, chopped (2/3 cup) 1 tbsp onion powder OR
1/4 cup instant minced or chopped onion
Onion Juice 2 tbsp

3/4 tsp instant minced onion OR
3/4 tsp onion flakes

Orange 1 medium 6-8 tbsp juice
Orange Peel (fresh, grated) 1 tsp

1 tsp dried orange peel OR
1/2 tsp orange extract OR
2 tbsp orange juice (for flavoring)

Peas, Snow Sugar snap peas
Pimento 2 tbsp chopped 3 tbsp red bell pepper, chopped
Peppers, Green Bell 1 tbsp dried 3 tbsp fresh fresh green pepper, chopped
Peppers, Red Bell 1 tbsp dried 3 tbsp fresh red bell pepper, chopped OR
2 tbsp pimiento, chopped
Potatoes, mashed 1 lb 1 1/3 cups instant mashed potatoes, prepared
Raisins Currants, dried cherries, dried cranberries, chopped dates or chopped prunes
Shallots, chopped Green onions (white part only) OR
Onions, dash crushed garlic
Tomatillo Fresh green tomatoes plus a little lemon juice
Tomato Juice 1 cup 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water
Tomato Paste 1/2 cup 1 cup tomato sauce cooked uncovered to reduced to 1/2 cup
Tomato Sauce 2 cups 3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water
Tomato Soup 2 cups 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup water
Tomatoes 1 can 2 1/2 cups chopped, peeled fresh tomatoes, simmered about 10 minutes
Tomatoes, chopped 16 oz can 3 fresh medium tomatoes OR
16 oz can stewed tomatoes
Truffles 1 oz 1 oz shiitake mushrooms

Food Amount Substitute
Bacon, cooked and chopped 1 strip 1 tbsp bacon bits OR
Smoked ham OR
Canadian bacon
Beer Nonalcoholic beer, apple cider or beef broth
Bread Crumbs Finely crushed cracker crumbs, corn flakes or quick-cooking or old-fashioned oats
1/3 cup dry 1 slice bread
3/4 cup soft 1 slice bread
1 cup soft 2 slices bread OR
3/4 cup cracker crumbs OR
1 1/3 cups oatmeal (uncooked)
Broth, chicken or beef 1 cup 1 cup boiling water, 1 bouillon cube OR
1 cup boiling water, 1 tsp bouillon crystals
Bulgur, cooked Cooked couscous or brown rice
Chili Paste Red pepper flakes, cayenne, or bottled hot sauce
Chili Sauce 1 cup 1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 tbsp vinegar, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, dash of ground cloves, and dash of allspice OR
1 cup catsup, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, dashes of ground cloves and allspice
Cocktail Sauce 1 1/4 cups 1 cup ketchup or chili sauce, 3 tbsp horseradish, 1 tbsp lemon juice, 2 tsp worcestershire sauce
Coconut, grated 1 cup 1 1/3 cups coconut, flaked
Coconut Cream Whipping cream
Coconut Milk 1 cup

1 cup whipping cream plus 1/2 tsp each of coconut extract and granulated sugar OR
1 cup whole or 2% milk OR
3 tbsp cream of coconut, 7/8 cup water or low-fat milk

Cracker Crumbs Dry bread crumbs
Espresso, Instant 1 tsp 2 tsp instant coffee OR 1 1/2 tsp of dark roast instant coffee OR 1/2 tsp instant coffee plus 1/2 tsp dark cocoa powder
Gelatin, flavored 3 oz pkg prepared 1 tbsp plain gelatin plus 2 cups fruit juice
Honey 1 cup 1 1/4 cups granulated sugar with 1/4 cup water or apple juice OR
7/8 cup buttermilk plus 2 tbsp melted shortening, whipped OR
1 cup corn syrup
Horseradish, bottled 2 tbsp 1 tbsp horseradish, dried, 1 tbsp vinegar, 1 tbsp water
Horseradish, fresh 1 tbsp 2 tbsp bottled
Ketchup, Catsup 1 cup 1 can tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup granulated sugar and 2 tbsp white vinegar OR
1 cup chili sauce
Mayonnaise, commercial 1 cup 1 cup cottage cheese (process in blender until smooth) OR
1/2 cup mayonnaise, 1/2 cup plain yogurt OR
1 cup salad dressing OR
1 cup sour cream OR
1 cup yogurt
Mayonnaise, homemade 1 cup 1 cup commercial mayonnaise, 1 tsp lemon juice, 1 tsp prepared mustard
Mustard, dry (for wet mixtures) 1 tsp 1 tbsp prepared mustard
Mustard, prepared 1 tbsp 1 tbsp dry mustard, 1 tsp vinegar, 1 tsp water, milk or cream, 1 tsp sugar
Pancake Syrup 1/2 cup brown sugar plus 1 1/2 cup water plus 2 1/2 tsp cornstarch. Cook until slightly thickened.
Pepperoni Salami
Pie Crust Mix 8 cups 6 1/4 cups flour, 1 tbsp salt, 2 1/2 cups shortening
Red Pepper Sauce 3 or 4 drops 1/8 tsp ground red pepper (cayenne)
Rice 1 cup regular, uncooked 1 cup uncooked converted rice (3 cups cooked) OR
1 cup uncooked brown rice OR
1 cup uncooked wild rice
1 cup cooked 1 cup cooked bulgur wheat OR
1 cup cooked pearl barley
Rum 1 tbsp dark rum
5 tbsp light rum
2 tbsp rum extract
1 tbsp rum extract
Salami Pepperoni
Stock Base, instant 2 tsp 1 bouillon cube
Stock Base, instant 4 tsp dissolved in 1 1/4 cup water 1 can (10 1/2 oz) condensed, undiluted bouillon or consummé
Tabasco Sauce 4 drops 18 tsp cayenne OR
1/4 tsp black pepper
Taco Seasoning 1 pkg (1 1/4 oz size) 4 tsp instant minced onion, 2 tsp chili powder, 2 tsp salt, 1 tsp garlic powder, 1 tsp cornstarch, 1 tsp ground cumin, 1 tsp cayenne
Tapioca 1 tbsp 1 1/2 tbsp all-purpose flour OR
2 tbsp pearl tapioca
Tartar Sauce 1/2 cup 6 tbsp mayonnaise, 2 tbsp pickle relish
White Sauce 1 cup 10 /4 oz canned cream-style soup (undiluted)
Wine (for cooking) Apple juice or cider
Wine (for marinade) 1/2 cup 1/4 cup vinegar, 1/4 cup water, 1 tbsp sugar
Wine, Red

Nonalcoholic wine, apple cider, beef broth, tomato juice or water

Wine, Rice Dry sherry
Wine, White Nonalcoholic wine, white grape juice, apple juice, apple cider, chicken broth, or water
Worcestershire Sauce 1 tsp 1 tsp bottled steak sauce OR
1 tbsp soy sauce, 4 drops tabasco sauce, 1/8 tsp lemon juice, dash sugar

Healthy Substitutions
Food Substitute
Avocados Water chestnuts
Bacon Low-fat Canadian bacon
Baked Goods Fat-free baked goods
Biscuits Fat-free biscuit mixes
Bologna Chicken or turkey breasts
Brownies Angel food cake, fruit, gelatin desserts
Cheese Non-fat or low-fat cheeses, ricotta, cottage cheese
Chips, Corn Chips, Potato Chips Air-popped popcorn, crackers, vegetable sticks, baked tortilla chips
Chocolate Chocolate syrup, cocoa, fat-free pudding, light chocolate topping
Chocolate Candy Jelly beans, hard candy
Coconut Oil Canola, safflower, sunflower, corn or olive oil
Coffee Creamer Low-fat or nonfat milk, powdered creamer without tropical oils, powdered nonfat milk
Cookies Animal crackers, fig bars, gingersnaps, graham crackers, vanilla wafers
Crackers Fat-free crackers, soda crackers, toasted bread sticks
Cream Evaporated skim milk
Cream Cheese Fat-free cream cheese
Cream Sauces Marinara sauces
Creamy Dressings Dilute with cucumbers, tomatoes, other vegetables or with low-fat yogurt or cottage cheese
Croissants Baked donut holes
Danish Pastry Muffins, fat-free pastries
Donut Muffins, raisin-cinnamon bagel, fat-free pastries
Pastry Fat-free pastries
Eggs Egg substitutes, egg whites
French Fries Baked or mashed potatoes, carrot sticks, oven-baked "fries"
Fried Foods Baked, broiled, boiled, grilled, microwaved, poached, raw, roasted, sautéed, simmered, or steamed Foods
Granola, Granola Bars Nutritious cereal, dried fruit or cereal/fruit mix
Gravy Prepare, refrigerate and skim off fat or use low-fat gravy in jars, mixes, or Worcestershire sauce
Ground Beef Lean ground
Ham Turkey ham
Hamburger Ground chicken or turkey, or low-fat ground beef
Hot Dogs Low-fat hot dogs, turkey frankfurters
Ice Cream Frozen diet bars, fat-free frozen dessert, low-fat ice cream, frozen yogurt, ice milk
Lamb Fish or poultry
Lard Vegetable oils
Lunch Meats Low-fat turkey meat or water-packed tuna
Margarine Fat-free or low-fat margarine or olive oil
Mayonnaise Fat-free or low-fat mayonnaise
Muffins Fat-free mixes
Nuts and Seeds Grape-nuts cereal, popcorn, pretzels
Oil Applesauce (for baking purposes), applesauce plus skim milk (if oil is only liquid), butter buds (mixed to form a liquid), corn syrup, non-stick cookery, spray
Olives Pickles
Palm Kernel Oil Canola, corn, olive, safflower, or sunflower oil
Pastrami Turkey pastrami
Pie Crust Graham cracker crust
Pork Lean pork tenderloin
Ranch Dressing Make with nonfat or low-fat mayonnaise
Red Meat Fish, poultry
Salad Dressings Nonfat salad dressings
Salami Turkey salami
Sausage Low-fat sausages
Sausage Pizza Canadian bacon or vegetarian pizza
Soups Condensed low-fat, reduced sodium soups
Sour Cream Fat-free sour cream, nonfat yogurt, sour half & half, sour half & half mixed with low-fat yogurt, low-fat yogurt
Spaghetti Sauce Prepared low-fat spaghetti sauce
Veal Fish, poultry
Whipped Cream Vanilla-flavored nonfat or low-fat yogurt
White Sauces Tomato sauces
Whole Eggs Egg whites
Whole Milk Skim or low-fat milk